A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions. These substances are usually alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxylate (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations Na+ and hydroxide anions OH−. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH•nH2O.The monohydrate NaOH•H2O crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available “sodium hydroxide” is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students.
Chlorine (Calcium hypochlorite) is an inorganic compound with formula Ca(ClO)2. It is the main active ingredient of commercial products called bleaching powder, chlorine powder, or chlorinated lime, used for water treatment and as a bleaching agents. This compound is relatively stable and has greater available chlorine than sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach). It is a white solid, although commercial samples appear yellow. It strongly smells of chlorine, owing to its slow decomposition in moist air. It is not highly soluble in hard water, and is more preferably used in soft to medium-hard water. It has two forms: dry (anhydrous); and hydrated (hydrous).
A solution of 35 to 40 per cent of water in formaldehyde or methanal is called formalin. Formaldehyde”s formula is HCHO. The initial material of formalin is methanol which is an alcohol with boiling point of 65 C which will be evaporated quickly and will produce an explosive gas after being combined with oxygen. We should use sparkle equipment, firefighting equipment, gas leaking sensors, different storage equipped with chiller, Nitrogen gas injection part and etc. in order to prevent risks in transportation and storage of Methanol.
Polyethylene glycol is a highly biocompatible poly(ether), which is soluble in aqueous solutions and organic solvents, which contributes to its biocompatibility and processability, respectively. The low toxicity and non-immunogenicity of poly(ethylene glycol), coupled with the ability for low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol)s to obtain renal clearance render the biopolymer a popular choice for the surface modification of biomaterials, particles and micelles for active molecule transport, and for chemical and physical hydrogels. Poly(ethylene glycol) is not hydrolytically dissociated in vivo; however, its hydrophilic functionalities confer an enhanced water affinity and biodegradability to the polymer. Poly(ethylene glycol)s are fabricated via the polycondensation of ethylene glycol in the presence of acidic or basic catalysts, producing a lower molecular weight product.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow, crystalline solid at room temperature.
Triethanolamine aka Trolamine (abbr. as TEOA to distinguish it from TEA which is for triethylamine) is a viscous organic compound that is both a tertiary amine and a triol. A triol is a molecule with three alcohol groups. is a strong base. Approximately 150,000 tonnes were produced in 1999. It is a colourless compound although samples may appear yellow because of impurities. Triethanolamine is a strongly alkaline substance used as surfactant and pH adjusting chemical. Trolamine, (TEA), is a tertiary amine and a triol. It is a bifunctional compound that exhibits both properties of alcohols and amines. Trolamine contains small amounts of diethanolamine and ethanolamine and may also act as an antioxidant against the auto-oxidation of animal and vegetable fats [A27174]. It is commonly used as a pH adjuster and surfactant in industrial and cosmetic products such as skin and hair conditioning products.
Urea is a compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids. Urea is a nitrogenous compound containing a carbonyl group attached to two amine groups with osmotic diuretic activity.