Toluene , also known as toluol , is an aromatic hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, water-insoluble liquid with the smell associated with paint thinners. It is a mono-substituted benzene derivative, consisting of a CH3 group attached to a phenyl group.
Toluene was first isolated in 1837 through a distillation of pine oil by a Polish chemist named Filip Walter, who named it rétinnaphte. In 1841, French chemist Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville isolated a hydrocarbon from balsam of Tolu (an aromatic extract from the tropical Colombian tree Myroxylon balsamum), which Deville recognized as similar to Walter’s rétinnaphte and to benzene; hence he called the new hydrocarbon benzoène. In 1843, Jöns Jacob Berzelius recommended the name toluin. In 1850, French chemist Auguste Cahours isolated from a distillate of wood a hydrocarbon which he recognized as similar to Deville’s benzoène and which Cahours named toluène.
- Used as an industrial feedstock.
- Used as a solvent for carbon nanomaterials Used as a precursor to benzene via hydrodealkylation.
- Used in the manufacture of polyurethane foam.
- Used as an octane booster in gasoline fuels for internal combustion engines.
- Used as an intoxicative inhalant in a manner unintended by manufacturers.
- Used as a fullerene indicator.
- Sweet, pungent, benzene-like odor.
|Boiling Point||110.7 oC|
|Melting Point||-95 oC|
|Flash Point||40 oF (closed cup)|
|Vapor Density||3.2 (air = 1)|
|Vapor Pressure||36.7 mm Hg at 30 oC|
|Density/Specific Gravity||0.866 at 20/4 oC (water = 1)|
|Log Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient||2.69|
|Conversion Factor||1 ppm = 3.77 mg/m3|