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SOLVENT Definition

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, “loosen, untie, solve”) is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid. The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (eg tetrachloroethylene), as paint thinners (eg toluene, turpentine) , as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (eg hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes) and in perfumes (ethanol). Water is a solvent for polar molecules and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell.Solvents find various applications in chemical, pharmaceutical, oil, and gas industries, including in chemical syntheses and purification processes.



Solvent Classification

Solvents can be broadly classified into two categories: polar and non-polar. A special case is mercury, whose solutions are known as amalgams; also, other metal solutions exist which are liquid at room temperature. Generally, the dielectric constant of the solvent provides a rough measure of a solvent's polarity. The strong polarity of water is indicated by its high dielectric constant of 88 (at 0 ° C). Solvents with a dielectric constant of less than 15 are generally considered to be nonpolar. The dielectric constant measures the solvent's tendency to partly cancel the field strength of the electric field of a charged particle immersed in it. This reduction is then compared to the field strength of the charged particle in a vacuum. Heuristically,the dielectric constant of a solvent can be thought of as its ability to reduce the solute's effective internal charge. Generally, the dielectric constant of a solvent is an acceptable predictor of the solvent's ability to dissolve common ionic compounds, such as salts.

Solvents Applications

  • chemical industry
  • cluster experimentation
  • industrial polymerization
  • ion-exchange technology
  • reaction mechanisms
  • solutions


  • Aliphatic Solvents

    Aliphatic solvents are in the category of aliphatic compounds. Aliphatic solvents do not contain a benzene ring. They are mixtures of saturated, long straight chain (normal-paraffin), branched chain (iso-paraffin) or cyclic paraffins.
  • Aromatic Solvents

    An aromatic solvent is a solvent that contains an aromatic hydrocarbon such as naptha, toluene or xylene. Aromatic solvents are primarily used as solvents and diluents in various industrial fields. Aromatic solvents such as toluene are commonly used in paints, varnishes, adhesives and as chemical intermediates.
  • Mineral Spirits

  • Compound Solvents

    These Solvents Are A Composition of Aliphatic & Aromatic Solvents.
  • Comparison Table

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